Sunday, March 15, 2020

Description and Examples of Variables

Description and Examples of Variables A variable is a name for a place in the computers memory where you store some data. Imagine a very large warehouse with lots of storage bays, tables, shelves, special rooms etc. These are all places where you can store something. Lets imagine we have a crate of beer in the warehouse. Where exactly is it located? We wouldnt say that it is stored 31 2 from the west wall and 27 8 from the north wall. In programming terms we also wouldnt say that my total salary paid this year is stored in four bytes starting at location 123,476,542,732 in RAM. Data in a PC The computer will place variables in different locations each time our program is run. However, our program knows exactly where the data is located. We do this by creating a variable to refer to it and then let the compiler handle all the messy details about where it is actually located. It is far more important to us to know what type of data we will be storing in the location. In our warehouse, our crate might be in section 5 of shelf 3 in the drinks area. In the PC, the program will know exactly where its variables are located. Variables Are Temporary They exist just as long as they are needed and are then disposed of. Another analogy is that variables are like numbers in a calculator. As soon as you hit the clear or power off buttons, the display numbers are lost. How Big Is a Variable As big as is needed and no more. The smallest a variable can be is one bit and the largest is millions of bytes. Current processors handle data in chunks of 4 or 8 bytes at a time (32 and 64 bit CPUs), so the bigger the variable, the longer it will take to read or write it. The size of the variable depends on its type. What Is a Variable Type? In modern programming languages, variables are declared to be of a type. Apart from numbers, the CPU does not make any kind of distinction between the data in its memory. It treats it as a collection of bytes. Modern CPUs (apart from those in mobile phones) can usually handle both integer and floating point arithmetic in hardware. The compiler has to generate different machine code instructions for each type, so knowing what the type of variable helps it generate optimal code. What Types of Data Can a Variable Hold? The fundamental types are these four. Integers (both signed and unsigned) 1,2,4 or 8 bytes in size. Usually referred to as ints.Floating Point Numbers up to 8 bytes in size.Bytes. These are organized in 4s or 8s (32 or 64 bits) and read in and out of the CPUs registers.Text strings, up to billions of bytes in size. CPUs have special instructions for searching through large blocks of bytes in memory. This is very handy for text operations. There is also a general variable type, often used in scripting languages. Variant - This can hold any type but is slower to use. Example of Data Types Arrays of types- single dimension like drawers in a cabinet, two-dimensional like post office sorting boxes or three dimensional like a pile of beer crates. There can be any number of dimensions, up to the limits of the compiler.Enums which are a restricted subset of integers.  Read about  what is an enum is.Structs are a composite variable where several variables are lumped together in one big variable.Streams provide a way to manage files. Theyre a form of a string.Objects, are like structs but with much more sophisticated data handling. Where are Variables Stored? In memory but in different ways, depending on how they are used. Globally. All parts of the program can access and change the value. This is how older languages like Basic and Fortran used to handle data and it is not considered a good thing. Modern languages tend to discourage global storage though it is still possible.On the Heap. This is the name for the main area used. In C and C, access to this is via pointer variables.On the Stack. The stack is a block of memory that is used to store parameters passed into functions, and variables that exist local to functions. Conclusion Variables are essential to procedural programming, but it is important not to get too hung up on the underlying implementation unless you are doing systems programming or writing applications that have to run in a small amount of RAM. Our rules regarding variables: Unless you are tight on ram or have large arrays, stick with ints rather than a byte (8 bits) or short int (16 bits). Especially on 32 Bit CPUs, there is an extra delay penalty in accessing less than 32 bits.Use floats instead of doubles unless you need the precision.Avoid variants unless really necessary. They are slower.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Mexican Beer Market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Mexican Beer Market - Essay Example FEMSA is one of the most dominant breweries in Mexico. They were founded in 1890 in Monterrey. They continue to work to be a world class organization that generates value through a customer focused business system. Currently they have: 6 brewing facilities in Mexico 8 brewing facilities in Brazil Over 23,000 employees Served approximately 320,000 retail stores in Mexico Annual growth rate of approximately 1,000,000 people The largest beverage company in Latin America serving more than 184 million consumers FEMSA's beverage operations include: *Coca Cola FEMSA which is the largest Coca Cola bottler in Latin America and the 2nd largest in the world based on sales volume. Fanta, Sprite, and Ciel are a few of more than 70 brands offered *FEMSA Cerveza is one of Mexico's leading brewers and major exporter to the U.S. The flagship brands include Sol, Dos Equis, Tecate, and Bohemia. *Oxxo convenience stores are the largest retail network in Latin America with over 4,800 stores in Mexico FEMSA Financial Track Record for 2006: Total Revenue = $11,625 million Oxxo Stores 28% Beer 28% Soft Drinks 44% CAGR 16% Total Operating Income =$1,599 million Oxxo Stores 9% Beer 35% Soft Drinks 56% CAGR 15% FEMSA 1st and 2nd Quarter Reviews FEMSA has done pretty well for the 1st quarter of the year. They experienced a revenue growth 9%. The breakdown of growth is 7% Coca Cola sales, 3.6% beer sales, and 10.8% income from operations. International operations doubled from 2006 creating the strongest growth. The least amount of growth in the beer division was caused by several factors: Seasonal increases of expenses such as marketing and raw materials in Brazil; A softer demand environment in Mexico; and a weaker pricing environment. During the 2nd quarter of 2007, FEMSA experienced a slight decrease in financial gain with a 7% revenue growth. Coca Cola sales increased 5.9%, beer sales increased 2.7% and income from operations increased 10.5%. Once again the strongest growth comes from international operations. The revenue reports from the first two quarters of 2007 are very favorable to a steady overall growth rate. While FEMSA has had marginal increases in revenue, they are focused on long term results over short term results. Mexico is FEMSA's largest market by far when factoring sales and profits. Their consumer base is

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Analysis and Summary of Health Risk information about Abilene Research Paper

Analysis and Summary of Health Risk information about Abilene Community - Research Paper Example From this population, the approximate number of people considered homeless is 625-1,875 per night. This is based on a formulae used by Housing and Urban Development to determine the number of homeless people in an area. Housing and Urban Development uses 0.5%-1.5% of the overall population to determine the number of homeless people. Local homeless population in Abilene has been determined to be around 1000 people. Hope Haven Incorporation confirms that the number of homeless people served and turned away every year is approximately 1000 (AHHI, n.d). Homelessness in Abilene is different from that observed in urban areas considering the living conditions and even the race. According to the National Coalition for the Homeless, in urban areas, most homeless people are African-American males. The definition of homelessness by the federal government and the perception of homelessness by the people also affect the face of homelessness in Abilene. Abilene is a semi-rural city with white sing le males as most of its homeless people. The federal government considers homelessness as lack of regular, fixed and enough night-time residence. Most people have the impression that homelessness is living on the streets or in shelters. In Abilene the homeless are likely to be hidden because it is a semi-rural city. In such areas, homeless people mostly live in make-shift lean-tos, abandoned houses or in automobiles. Under these conditions, the homeless lack water and electricity (Eiserer, n.d). Additionally, homeless people in semi-rural and rural areas are less likely to live in shelters or on the streets. Most of them live with their relatives in substandard or overcrowded housing (Eiserer, n.d). This status increases the number homelessness related diseases, especially when they go unrecognized. It increases the risk of infection and affects control of already existing diseases. Abilene community also has the problem of overcrowding in elementary schools. Abilene has been experi encing increased numbers of student enrolment over the years. This however, has not been accompanied by increased elementary educational facilities leading to overcrowding. Because of overcrowding, AISD has proposed a boundary rezoning that is expected to balance the number of students in different schools. Overcrowding is expected be eased at Jackson elementary school, overcrowding is expected to create more space at Ward Elementary, and increase enrolment at Reagan and Dyess. This rezoning is expected to affect Dyess, Jackson, Ward, Bassetti and Reagan Elementary schools (Powell, 2013). Overcrowding causes health problems both directly and indirectly. It enhances the spread of infectious diseases directly, and causes strain on existing facilities, which then cause various types of health problems and diseases. Community Health Nursing Diagnosis 1 Health Risk: Higher Prevalence or Existence of Homeless Diseases than expected The conditions of the houses that the homeless people liv e in are a contributing factor to their health status. Hope Haven Incorporation indicates that in a year, approximately 1000 homeless people are served or turned away (AHHI, n.d). This could be exclusive of other homeless people who could be living with their relatives, in abandoned houses, make-shift lean-tos and in automobiles among other areas. It means that the number of homeless people that the city planners and charity organizations are aware of could be more than 1000. Homeless people suffer from various diseases such as tooth decay, trauma, respiratory infections, vision disturbances, trauma, sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse,

Friday, January 31, 2020

Dodge Ram Essay Example for Free

Dodge Ram Essay †¢ During an executive test drive just months before product launch, Daimler Chrysler officials declared a no-launch decision because of excessive vehicle vibration for the companys newly designed Dodge Ram Mega Cab 44 pickup. †¢ Cummins Inc. , manufacturer of the trucks diesel engine, immediately chartered a Six Sigma team and employed the DMAIC problem-solving process to diagnose and correct the factors leading to the high vibration levels. †¢ Through extensive testing, the Six Sigma team determined that by increasing the crankshaft counterweight radius, vibrations were significantly reduced. †¢ The Cummins team completed the DMAIC project in an extraordinary time frame — just over four months — resulting in a 16% reduction in vibration levels and a 100% increase in sales of the truck in the first year compared to sales projections. It was less than nine months before Daimler Chrysler launched its new 2006 Dodge Ram Mega Cab 44 pickup when top company executives tested vehicle prototypes during a semi-annual executive ride-and-drive session. During the test drives, the automakers executives determined that excessive engine vibrations felt in the cab created a no-launch situation. The company then turned to Cummins Inc. , supplier of the vehicles 5. 9-liter turbo-diesel engine, looking to dramatically reduce the vibration levels—and quickly! Cummins, which already had a successful companywide Six Sigma program in place, immediately launched a Six Sigma project to tackle the vibration problem. Cummins Inc. deployed a Six Sigma team to reduce engine vibration just six months prior to the September 2005 launch of the new Dodge Ram Mega Cab 44 pickup. Recognizing consumer demand for better fuel economy and reduced emissions, both Toyota and Honda have introduced hybrid vehicles to the American market. Toyota introduced the Prius to the U. S. in 2000. Honda began selling the hybrid two-seater Insight in the U. S. in 1999. U. S. Sales in the hybrid vehicle industry have increased over 570 percent since model year 20001. Today, hybrid vehicles hold a 1% market share in the U. S. ,2 and there are three models of hybrid vehicles dominating the market: the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, and the Honda Civic Hybrid. The Toyota Prius Toyota’s initial marketing strategy for the Prius targeted innovators and early adopters of new technologies. * The 2000 â€Å"Prius/genius† campaign focused on highlighting Toyota’s commitment to creating environmentally responsible vehicles4 and on using online space to engage technophiles early on in the production process. Toyota enabled interested customers to visit a special website about Prius development as early as two years before the introduction of the product. Toyota used focus groups and clinics with target consumers to evaluate different aspects of the Prius. Toyota found that the consumers valued high technology, affordable price, clean operation, comfort, quality, convenient design, and safety. Toyota’s television and print ads underscored the evolutionary aspects of hybrid technology and freedom from dependence on oil. Toyota created online e-brochures with a 17-second video clip that were sent to the almost 44,000 people. 5 In addition, Toyota benefited from various celebrity endorsements that attracted attention to the new Prius.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Comparative Essay: Compare Nothings Changed with Vultures, Analysing :: English Literature

Comparative Essay: Compare Nothings Changed with Vultures, Analysing the Political Message Conveyed Introduction My essay is based on comparing the poems ‘Nothings Changed’ with ‘Vultures’. I am looking at the similarities and differences in the writing, characters, setting, structure, words and poetic devices used. I am also looking at the different emotions the different poets have used. How do the poets use setting to convey mood? ============================================ In ‘Vultures’ the poet uses sad and dull words to convey the mood. I know this because in the poem the poet has used words such as ‘greyness’ and ‘dead tee’. He has used these to express his emotions and to reinforce the atmosphere of the poem and what the poem is about. In ‘Nothings Changed’ the poet has used words to describe what he is looking at and how he feels. He has used words like ‘new up-market, haute cuisine’ and ‘working mans cafà © which sells bunny chow’. The words he has used are to enhance the setting and for the reader to acknowledge the comparisons between blacks and whites in the poem I think that the similarities in the poem are that both poems enhance the poet’s emotions and feelings. The differences are that in ‘Vultures’ has described his setting in a simple way, whereas in ‘Nothings Changed’ the writer has gone into detail. How does the poet use characters? The poet who has written the poem ‘Vultures’ has used his main characters as animals, which are vultures. He has also added the commandant. I know that the vultures are the main characters because the title of the poem is ‘Vultures’ and in there he has used sentences such as ‘a vulture perching high’ and ‘Nestled close to his mate’. The commandant has been introduced in the poem in the sentence ‘Thus the commandant’. As the word ‘Vultures’ is a metaphor it creates an image in the readers head to make the poem more effective and he commandant has been given two personalities to say what the character is like and to give more of an idea of what the poem is about. First, the commandant is said to be grouse, yet affectionate and capable as he stops at the sweet shop to buy his kids some sweets. The characters in ‘Nothings Changed’ are blacks and whites, which are against each other. The poet himself is also a character. The reason for this is that the poet tells how different whites are to blacks, as he uses setting and actions to suggest how the blacks and whites are seen to others. Sentences he uses are ‘New, up-market, haute cuisine†¦ Whites only inn’ and refers to the blacks in this sentence; ‘Working Comparative Essay: Compare Nothings Changed with Vultures, Analysing :: English Literature Comparative Essay: Compare Nothings Changed with Vultures, Analysing the Political Message Conveyed Introduction My essay is based on comparing the poems ‘Nothings Changed’ with ‘Vultures’. I am looking at the similarities and differences in the writing, characters, setting, structure, words and poetic devices used. I am also looking at the different emotions the different poets have used. How do the poets use setting to convey mood? ============================================ In ‘Vultures’ the poet uses sad and dull words to convey the mood. I know this because in the poem the poet has used words such as ‘greyness’ and ‘dead tee’. He has used these to express his emotions and to reinforce the atmosphere of the poem and what the poem is about. In ‘Nothings Changed’ the poet has used words to describe what he is looking at and how he feels. He has used words like ‘new up-market, haute cuisine’ and ‘working mans cafà © which sells bunny chow’. The words he has used are to enhance the setting and for the reader to acknowledge the comparisons between blacks and whites in the poem I think that the similarities in the poem are that both poems enhance the poet’s emotions and feelings. The differences are that in ‘Vultures’ has described his setting in a simple way, whereas in ‘Nothings Changed’ the writer has gone into detail. How does the poet use characters? The poet who has written the poem ‘Vultures’ has used his main characters as animals, which are vultures. He has also added the commandant. I know that the vultures are the main characters because the title of the poem is ‘Vultures’ and in there he has used sentences such as ‘a vulture perching high’ and ‘Nestled close to his mate’. The commandant has been introduced in the poem in the sentence ‘Thus the commandant’. As the word ‘Vultures’ is a metaphor it creates an image in the readers head to make the poem more effective and he commandant has been given two personalities to say what the character is like and to give more of an idea of what the poem is about. First, the commandant is said to be grouse, yet affectionate and capable as he stops at the sweet shop to buy his kids some sweets. The characters in ‘Nothings Changed’ are blacks and whites, which are against each other. The poet himself is also a character. The reason for this is that the poet tells how different whites are to blacks, as he uses setting and actions to suggest how the blacks and whites are seen to others. Sentences he uses are ‘New, up-market, haute cuisine†¦ Whites only inn’ and refers to the blacks in this sentence; ‘Working

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

From the evidence you have studied how useful are the range of building in Saltaire as evidence of Titus Salt’s values and beliefs?

Here is evidence to show us ad to give us an idea of Titus salts values and beliefs. For example the church, the institute, the mill, the houses, the street names, the hospital and the almshouses. When I look the church that Titus Salt Built I can see that it is a replica of the Italian church, and that it is the main and central feature of Saltaire I can also see that it is opposite the mills, which meant that the workers could go to it everyday a think about the importance of religion. Inside I can see the beautiful dicor which included gold, marble-paste (scagliliola) pillars, decorated brickwork ring of 6 bells, glass lanterns which used to be powered by gas but now are powered but electricity due to health and safety (Source 2). The church itself cost i16 000 to build it. This shows us that Titus Salt's beliefs were that religion is valuable to him and his new town. He wanted to have a caring instinct and followed strict morals. Also if you were a regular member of the church for example went every day then you could get a promotion at the mills. The limitations of the church today portray how impressive it still is in the town. The church is still beautiful and it shine through. Also we can still see Titus Salt's vision clearly even though some parts of the building have faded or have been in need of repair. It is still possible to see the original design. For example the balcony that Titus Salt and his family used to sit in is now boarded up. Even though the balcony was there Salt chose not to sit up on the balcony but to sit with his workers which shows his true values of not being an elitist. The Institute is another example of Salt's values and beliefs. Looking at the Institute I can see that it is symmetrical and is made from very expensive stone . I didn't get a chance to look inside. Looking just at the outside I can see that there are a lot of windows, and from research I also found out that there was a swimming bath, library and a reading room. Lectures, band, horticultural society and sewing classes were also provided. The school today is sill and educational establishment. This Institute shows us that Titus Salt believed that children should have an education that's why children had to attend school half time. There is also a tower with a bell. At the top point of the Institute there are engraved alpaca's and a bird with stars and leaves around it . Also opposite the Institute is the a model of a town hall with lions outside it with Titus Salt's initials engraved in them. Here there are also activities that take part. Overall I believe that Titus Salt believed in good education. Today the Institute is a collage and is used for Saltaire's festivals and dance classes. another example of Titus Salts values and beliefs the mill. Just from looking at the outside I can see what Titus Salt believed in. The first thing that I see are a lot of Big windows which would let in a lot of light . This shows that he cared about his workers. Also the mill is very symmetrical and based on the Osborne house. The bricks that have been used again are very expensive and neo classical style. There is also a very tall chimney, but it has now been lowered due to health and safety issues. The height of the chimney meant that the pollution was released away from the town and meant that the town was not polluted . The location of the mill itself was originally in the country side away from the pollution of Bradford. This was because Salt believed that the pollution was causing the people heath problems, which showed that Titus Salt valued and believed that people should have better health. The mill is near the canal and River Aire which meant that the workers could have a fresh and clean supply of water constantly as well as being able to clean the wool before being spun. The inside of the mill doesn't give us much evidence of what Titus Salt's values and beliefs were. The mill had now been transformed into an art gallery and also has shops selling art tools such as paint . There is also a Cafi and a shop with clothes and accessories. The other part of the mill has now been converted into apartments. When I am inside the mill, the only thing I can see that meant that Titus Salt valued his workers are the big windows, as they let in a lot of light. As I look at the houses I can see that they are big and that they are made from expensive stone . Each house had its own running water, toilet and garden The houses are not back-to-back which was very unusual during this time period. The housed are built right next to the mill which meant that people didn't have very far to walk to go to work. There were also arches where people threw their rubbish. This showed that Titus Salt believed is cleanliness and valued the health and living conditions of the town and its people. Today the houses are still in very good conditions and people still live in them. When I look around I can see that the street names are after members of the Family . This shows us that Titus valued his family and believed that they should remember them and him long after he has died. When I look at the hospital I can see it is built of very expensive bricks . Although the hospital is no longer used as a hospital I can see that Titus Salt valued his workers because he built them a hospital. Today the hospital has converted into flat, so I can't see what it like then. Opposite are the almshouses. They are wall made from expensive stone and haver a beautiful garden at the front . If you or your children misbehaved you lost everything, your house, job and pension. Children could start working at the age of 10 so they were well trained. Today these houses are still lived in by pensioners.

Monday, January 6, 2020

A Christian Approach to Homosexuality - 7265 Words

CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO HOMOSEXUALITY 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION I. BIBLE AND HOMOSEXUALITY 1. Biblical View of Sexuality 2. Old Testament on Homosexuality 2a. Stories of Sodom and Gibeah 2b. Levitical Texts 3. New Testament on Homosexuality 3a. Paul’s Statements in Romans 3b. Other Pauline Texts II. BIOLOGY AND HOMOSEXUALITY III. LAW AND HOMOSEXUALITY IV. CHURCH AND THE HOMOSEXUAL CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY†¦show more content†¦BIBLICAL VIEW OF SEXUALITY The discussion on any issue related to sexuality has to begin from what the Bible teaches about sexuality and marriage. The first account of creation as given in Genesis 1 affirms the equality of sexes, since both were created in the image of God and both share the stewardship of the earth. The second account of creation as given in Genesis 2 affirms the complementarity of the sexes which constitutes the basis for heterosexual marriage. John Stott lists three fundamental truths that emerge from the second account of creation. The first truth is man’s need for companionship. God found that it is not good for man to be alone (2:18). Being created in the image of God who is love, man has the capacity and the need to love and to be loved. Here God declares that He will make ‘a helper’ or companion ‘suitable for him’. This companion was also designed to be his sexual partner with whom he was to become ‘one flesh’ and procreate children. Secon dly, Genesis 2 reveals God’s provision to meet man’s need. God parades before Adam all the beasts and the birds that he created. Having found no suitable companion for man among them, God makes a woman out of man. This was a special work of creation in which the sexes were differentiated. Out of the undifferentiated humanity of theShow MoreRelatedGender As A Person s Identity1111 Words   |  5 Pagesas the Holy Bible for the Catholics and the Quran for the Muslims. 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